Cardiovascular Complications of Chronic Rheumatic Diseases
George A. Karpouzas, MD, M. Elaine Husni, MD, MPH, Editor
Disease-specific or -associated immune responses further contribute to atherosclerosis development by affecting lipoprotein composition and function, cholesterol loading to arterial wall macrophages, foam cell formation, plaque instability, and rupture. Several of them serve as predictive and prognostic biomarkers, optimizing risk estimates for atherosclerotic plaque presence, progression, and cardiovascular events above and beyond traditional risk factor models. The evaluation of subclinical atherosclerosis across various vascular territories and using different, noninvasive imaging modalities, additionally optimize cardiovascular risk estimates. Future risk prediction models combining traditional risk factors, disease-specific characteristics, information from disease-associated biomarkers, imaging, and synthesized with the help of machine- and deep-learning modalities of artificial intelligence may further optimize risk recognition and allow the development of more effective and comprehensive cardioprotective strategies.