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National Osteoporosis Foundation, Clinician’s guide to prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. 2008. Available at: http://www.nof.org/professionals/NOF_clinicians_Guide.pdf. Accessed February 12, 2011.
- Incidence and economic burden of osteoporosis-related fractures in the United States, 2005–2025.J Bone Miner Res. 2007; 3: 465-475
- World Health Organization (1994) assessment of fracture risk and its application to screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Technical report series 843.WHO, Geneva (Switzerland)1994
- The diagnosis of osteoporosis.J Bone Miner Res. 1994; 9: 1137-1141
- Risk of hip fracture according to the World Health Organization criteria for osteoporosis and osteopenia.Bone. 2000; 27: 585-590
- World Health Organization guidelines for preclinical evaluation and clinical trials in osteoporosis.WHO, Geneva (Switzerland)1998
- Meta-analysis of how well measures of bone mineral density predict occurrence of osteoporotic fractures.BMJ. 1996; 312: 1254-1259
- Osteoporosis: recent advances in pathogenesis and treatment.QJM. 1994; 87: 203-209
- Assessment of fracture risk.Osteoporos Int. 2005; 16: 581-589
- Hip fractures in women without osteoporosis.J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005; 90: 2787-2793
- The population burden of fractures originates in women with osteopenia, not osteoporosis.Osteoporos Int. 2006; 17: 1404-1409
- Identification of osteopenic women at high risk of fracture. The OFELY study.J Bone Miner Res. 2005; 20: 813-1819
- Development and use of FRAX® in osteoporosis.Osteoporos Int. 2010; 21: S407-S413
- 2010 Clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in Canada: summary.CMAJ. 2010; 182: 1864-1873
- Algorithm for the management of osteoporosis.SMJ. 2010; 103: 1009-1015
FRAX® Available at: http://www.sheffield.ac.uk/FRAX/index.jsp. Accessed February 24, 2011.
World Health Organization. Assessment of osteoporosis at the primary health care level. WHO, Geneva (Switzerland), 2007. Available at: www.who.int/chp/topics/rheumatic/en/index.html. Accessed February 23, 2011.
- Development of prognostic nomograms for individualizing 5-year and 10-year fracture risks.Osteoporos Int. 2008; 19 (Available at:) (Accessed February 24, 2011): 1431-1444
- Predicting risk of osteoporotic fracture in men and women in England and Wales: prospective derivation and validation of QFractureScores.BMJ. 2009; 339 (Available at:) (Accessed February 24, 2011): b4229
Kanis JA on behalf of the World Health Organization Scientific Group a, Assessment of osteoporosis at the primary health-care level. Technical Report. WHO Collaborating Centre, University of Sheffield. UK; 2008. Available at: http://www.shef.ac.uk/FRAX/index.htm. Accessed February 24, 2011.
- FRAX™ and the assessment of fracture probability in men and women from the UK.Osteoporos Int. 2008; 19: 385-397
- FRAX and the assessment of fracture probability in men and women from the UK.Osteoporos Int. 2008; 19: 385-397
FRAX. Available at: http://www.shef.ac.uk//FRAX. Accessed February 23, 2011.
- The use of clinical risk factors enhances the performance of BMD in the prediction of hip and osteoporotic fractures in men and women.Osteoporos Int. 2007; 18: 1033-1046
- Vertebral fracture assessment, The 2007 Official Positions.JCD. 2008; 11: 92-108
Available at: http://itunes.apple.com/us/app/frax/id370146412?mt=8. Accessed February 24, 2011.
Available at: http://www.shef.ac.uk/FRAX/charts.jsp. Accessed February 24, 2011.
- Joint official positions of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) and International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) on FRAX®: executive Summary of the 2010 Position Development Conference on Interpretation and Use of FRAX® in Clinical Practice.J Clin Densitom. 2011; ([Epub ahead of print])
- Interpretation and use of FRAX® in clinical practice.Osteoporos Int. 2011; (Epub)
- Independent clinical validation of a Canadian FRAX tool: fracture prediction and model calibration.J Bone Miner Res. 2010; 25: 2350-2358
- Fracture prediction and calibration of a Canadian FRAX tool: a population-based report from CaMos.Osteoporos Int. 2011; 22: 829-837
FRAX implementation guide. Available at: http://www.nof.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/nof_FRAX_Implem_Guide.pdf. Accessed February 24, 2011.
FRAX implementation guide. Available at: http://www.iscd.org/visitors/pdfs/FRAXimplementationGuide_000.pfd. Accessed February 24, 2011.
- Perspective: filtering FRAX®.Osteoporos Int. 2010; 21: 537-541
- The US FRAX® filter: avoiding confusion or hindering progress?.Osteoporos Int. 2010; 21: 885
- Cost-effective osteoporosis treatment thresholds: the United States perspective.Osteoporos Int. 2008; 19: 437-447
- Implications of absolute fracture risk assessment for osteoporosis practice guidelines in the USA.Osteoporos Int. 2008; 19: 449-458
- Effect of total hip bone area on osteoporosis diagnosis and fractures.J Bone Miner Res. 2008; 23: 1468-1476
- The potential impact of new National Osteoporosis Foundation guidance on treatment patterns.Osteoporos Int. 2010; 21: 41-52
- The US National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) Guidelines: recommendations for pharmacologic treatment.IBMS Bone Key. 2008; 5: 137-141
- Effects of estrogen plus progestin on risk of fracture and bone mineral density: the Women’s Health Initiative randomized trial.JAMA. 2003; 290: 1729-1738
- FRAX® and its applications to clinical practice.Bone. 2009; 44: 734-743
- Ten-year fracture probability identifies women who benefit from clodronate therapy-additional results from a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study.Osteoporos Int. 2009; 20: 811-817
- Bazedoxifene reduces vertebral and clinical fractures in postmenopausal women at high risk assessed with FRAX.Bone. 2009; 44: 1049-1054
- A meta-analysis of the efficacy of raloxifene on all clinical and vertebral fractures and its dependency on FRAX®.Bone. 2010; 47: 729-735
- A meta-analysis of the effect of strontium ranelate on the risk of vertebral and non-vertebral fracture in postmenopausal osteoporosis and the interaction with FRAX®.Osteoporos Int. 2011; 22: 2347-2355
- Clinical value of monitoring BMD in patients treated with bisphosphonates for osteoporosis.J Bone Miner Res. 2009; 24: 1643-1646
- Wrist fracture as a predictor of future fractures in younger versus older postmenopausal women: results from the National Osteoporosis Risk Assessment (NORA).Osteoporos Int. 2008; 19: 607-613
- Bone mineral density threshold for pharmacologic intervention to prevent fractures.Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2004; 59: 769-771
- Rib fracture as an indicator of future fracture risk in postmenopausal women 50–99 years of age: results from the National Osteoporosis Risk Assessment (NORA).Osteoporos Int. 2006; 17: S145
- Rib fractures predict incident limb fractures: results from the European prospective osteoporosis study.Osteoporos Int. 2006; 17: 41-45
- Hospital-treated minimal-trauma rib fractures in elderly Finns: long-term trend and projections for the future.Osteoporos Int. 2004; 15: 649-653
Gillespie LD, Robertson MC, Lamb SE, et al. 2010 Interventions for preventing falls in older people living in the community (review); The Cochrane Collaboration. Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD007146/frame.html. Accessed February 24, 2011.
Cameron ID, Murray GR, Gillespie LD, et al. 2010 Interventions for preventing falls in older people in nursing care facilities and hospitals (review). Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD005465/frame.html. Accessed February 25, 2011.
Howe TE, Rochester L, Jackson A, 2008 exercise for improving balance in older people (review). Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD004963/frame.html. Accessed February 25, 2011.
- American College of Rheumatology 2010 recommendations for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.Arthritis Care Res. 2010; 62: 1515-1526
- Guidance for the adjustment of FRAX according to the dose of glucocorticoids.Osteoporos Int. 2011; 22: 809-816
- Oral corticosteroids and fracture risk: relationship to daily and cumulative doses.Rheumatology(Oxford). 2000; 39 (Kanis article above): 1383-1389
- Efficacy and safety of daily risedronate in the treatment of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis in men and women: a randomized trial.J Bone Miner Res. 2000; 15: 1006-1013
- Fractures in rheumatoid arthritis: an evaluation of associated risk factors.J Rheumatol. 1993; 20: 1666-1669
- Glucocorticoid osteoporosis-mechanisms and management.Eur J Endocrinol. 1997; 137: 209-217
- Rheumatoid arthritis, corticosteroid therapy and hip fracture.Ann Rheum Dis. 1995; 54: 49-52
- Fracture risk with intermittent high-dose oral glucocorticoid therapy.Arthritis Rheum. 2007; 56: 208-214
- Predictive value of BMD for hip and other fractures.J Bone Miner Res. 2005; 20: 1185-1194
- A reference standard for the description of osteoporosis.Bone. 2008; 42: 467-475
- Updated data on proximal femur bone mineral levels of US adults.Osteoporos Int. 1998; 8: 468-489
- A longitudinal study of the effect of spinal degenerative disease on bone density in the elderly.J Rheumatol. 1995; 22: 932-936
- Skeletal site bone mineral density heterogeneity in women and men.Osteoporos Int. 2001; 12: 362-365
- Clinical utility of spine bone density in elderly women.J Clin Densitom. 2006; 9: 255-260
- Discordance in patient classification using T-scores.J Clin Densitom. 1999; 2: 343-350
- Single-site vs multisite bone density measurement for fracture prediction.Arch Intern Med. 2007; 167: 1641-1647
- Absolute fracture risk assessment using lumbar spine and femoral neck bone density measurements: derivation and validation of a hybrid system.J Bone Miner Res. 2011; 26: 460-467
- Spine-hip discordance and fracture risk assessment: a physician-friendly FRAX enhancement.Osteoporos Int. 2011; 22: 839-847
- Spine-hip T-score difference predicts major osteoporotic fracture risk independent of FRAX®: a population-based report from CAMOS.J Clin Densitom. 2011; 11: 123-162
The author has nothing to disclose.